Constantinople, Councils of
As political and social forces of the fourth and fifth centuries forced Rome into eclipse, Constantinople, the "Rome of the East," began to be considered the caput mundi, "head of the world." Thus from 381 to 869 four ecumenical councils were convoked in this city on the Bosphorus, the capital of the Byzantine Empire: the first (381), which was the second ecumenical council after Nicaea, condemned the Arian heresy and reaffirmed the teaching of its predecessor; the second (553) condemned the Nestorian heresy; the third (681) reasserted the Christological clarifications of the Council of Chalcedon; the fourth (869) condemned Photius and his followers.
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